Skin Cancer FAQ
Everyday, skin cells die and new ones form to replace them in a process controlled by DNA. Skin cancer can form when this process does not work properly because of damage to DNA. New cells may form when they are not needed or older cells may not die. This can cause a growth of tissue known as a tumor. DNA damage is often a result of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning lamps. Since skin cancer can sometimes affect areas not exposed to the sun, heredity may also be a factor.
Certain factors, such as fair skin, moles, a weakened immune system and age, can also increase the risk of skin cancer.
Signs and Symptoms
Skin cancer can often be identified as a new or changed growth on the skin that may often occur on the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, hands or legs. The appearance of the growth depends on the type of cancer, but can appear as:
- Pearly or waxy bump
- Flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion
- Firm, red nodule
- Crusted, flat lesion
- Large brown spot with darker speckles
- Mole that changes shape or color
-Shiny, firm bumps
Common Airborne Allergens
Our data has shown that dust mite, pollens, molds and cockroaches besides cat and dog dander are the most common allergens. Pollens may come from weeds such as ragweed or from trees such as mesquite, pine, cedar or from local grasses such as Johnson or Bermuda grass. Most individuals are allergic to more than one antigen.
It is important to see your doctor if you notice any skin changes. Early detection is valuable in successfully treating skin cancer. Regular full body screening is recommended as well. A biopsy is performed to properly diagnose suspected cancerous growths.
Treatment for skin cancer depends on the type, size and location of the tumor. Most options remove the entire growth and are usually effective. Removal procedures are usually simple and require only a local anesthetic in an outpatient setting. Some of the treatment options for skin cancer include:
- Freezing – also known as cryosurgery, kills tissue by freezing them with liquid nitrogen
- Excision – the abnormal tissue, as well as some surrounding healthy tissue, is cut out of the skin
- Laser Therapy – destroys cancerous growths with little damage to surrounding tissue and few side effects
- Mohs Surgery – removes larger skin growths layer by layer until no abnormal cells remain to prevent damage to healthy skin
- Chemotherapy – uses drugs to kill cancer, may be applied through creams or lotions for top layer tumors
Other treatment options are also available, including new methods that are currently being studied.
Although most treatment for skin cancer is successful, new tumors can still form. It is important to practice preventive measures and see your doctor on a regular basis. You can also perform self skin checks to spot any changes as soon as possible.